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In order to use reverse osmosis as a water purification process, the feed water is pressurized on one side of a semi permeable membrane. The pressure must be high enough to exceed the osmotic pressure to cause reverse osmotic flow of water.
If the membrane is highly permeable to water, but essentially impermeable to dissolved solutes, pure water crosses the membrane and is known as product water. As product water crosses the membrane, the concentration of dissolved impurities increases in the remaining feed water (a condition known as concentration polarization) and, as a consequence, the osmotic pressure increases.
A point is reached at which the applied pressure is no longer able to overcome the osmotic pressure and no further flow of product water occurs. Moreover, if the applied pressure is increased in an attempt to gain more product water, a point is reached at which the membrane becomes fouled by precipitated salts and other un dissolved material from the water.
Therefore, there is a limit to the fraction of feed water which can be recovered as pure water and reverse osmosis units are operated in a configuration where only a portion of the feed water passes through the membrane with the remainder being directed to drain (cross-flow configuration).
The water flowing to drain contains concentrated solutes and other insoluble materials, such as bacteria, endotoxin and particles, and is referred to as the reject stream. The product water to feed water ratio can range from 10% 50% for purification of water depending on the characteristics of the incoming water as well as other conditions.